张舒羽,潘存鸿,程文龙.钱塘江涌潮对地形变化的响应研究[J].海洋工程,2020,38(1):130~139
钱塘江涌潮对地形变化的响应研究
Response of tidal bore in Qiantang River to topographical changes
  
DOI:10.16483/j.issn.1005-9865.2020.01.013
中文关键词:  涌潮  钱塘江  地形变化  传播速度  潮汐特征
英文关键词:tidal bore  Qiantang River  topography change  propagation speed  tidal characteristic
基金项目:国家自然科学基金资助项目(51779228)
作者单位E-mail
张舒羽 浙江同济科技职业学院浙江 杭州 311231
浙江省水利河口研究院浙江 杭州 310020 
316321892@qq.com 
潘存鸿 浙江省水利河口研究院浙江 杭州 310020 panch@zjwater.gov.cn 
程文龙 浙江省水利河口研究院浙江 杭州 310020  
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中文摘要:
      钱塘江涌潮以汹涌磅礴闻名中外,并对沿江防灾减灾带来巨大挑战,研究涌潮规律具有重要的学术价值和现实意义。采用涌潮数学模型研究钱塘江涌潮在地形变化下潮汐和涌潮特征的变化。结果表明,地形变化对潮汐和涌潮影响显著;随着地形的降低,钱塘江沿程低潮位下降,高潮位总体呈下降趋势,潮差增大,涨潮历时增加;涌潮高度和涌潮最大流速随相对Froude数呈先增后减规律,起潮点上移,涌潮传播速度增大;当地形降低到临界值后,相对Froude数小于1,涌潮消失。研究结论解释了钱塘江丰水地形涌潮大、枯水地形涌潮小的现象。为保护涌潮资源,维持适当的江道容积是必要的。
英文摘要:
      The Qiantang River tidal bore is famous worldwide for its overwhelming surge. Moreover, it brings great challenges for disaster prevention and reduction along the Qiantang River. Therefore, studying the law of tidal bore is very important both academically and practically. A mathematical model of the tidal bore was used to simulate the effect of topography changes on the characteristics of the tide and tidal bore. The results show that these changes have a significant impact on the tidal bore. With the reduction of the river bed elevation, the low-tide and high-tide levels decrease, the tidal range and the flood duration increase, the tidal bore height and the maximal velocity of the tidal bore initially increase and then decrease, which are consistent with the change of the relative Froude numbers, and the tidal bore location moves upstream. Additionally, the tidal bore propagation speed increases. When river bed elevation decreases to the critical value, the relative Froude number becomes less than one, and the tidal bore disappears. The conclusions of the study explain that the tidal bore is huge in the flood topography and weak in the dry topography. To protect the resources of the tidal bore, it is necessary to maintain a certain river volume.
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